WE HAVE MOVED!

Hello folks… we have moved over to our new site. Loads of new features such as Forums,Group discussions etc. are waiting for you.So jump over to our new site and join us in our incredible journey!

Stay Awesome!!

Ciao.

Advertisements

How to be a millionaire easily – 7 ways.

Hello, everybody.

Are you the person who wants a scenic background rain shower in the backyard of your dream house? Or a four sided Lego wall for full potential for creativity? Or a Batman Tumbler just to beat the rush hour traffic?

scroog

If no, then you are not that good with rhetorical questions.

Anyway, obviously all that would be possible if *sighs* if you had a million dollars.Right?.

Well. We just happen to know a way to do that. Yup, you read it right, and we promise this way does not include clicking on ads and taking surveys on social networking  sites.

So, cutting to the chase.

All you gotta do is solve any of these seven problems. Oh and I shit you not, these problem do have million dollar reward over them. Solve any one or maybe you are a wee bit greedy and/or bored solve more.

  1. P vs NP problem
  2. Riemann Hypothesis.
  3. Poincare Conjecture.
  4. Navier-Stokes Equation.
  5. Hodge Conjecture.
  6. Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture.
  7. Yang–Mills and Mass Gap.

Let’s begin by learning what each problem is basically. Cool?

  1. P vs NP problem

p-np5

I’ll break it down for ya all. It asks “If a solution is easy to check, is it easy to solve? And vice versa“ During the Retro age, computer scientists were finding out faster alternative solutions to various mathematical problems ,well they did succeed somewhat in doing so, but there were some problems like the Travelling Salesman Problem, they just couldn’t find a better albeit faster way to solve such problems. They divided all problems into two teams: P and NP. P problems were the ones that could be solved in reasonable amount of time whereas NP are the problems which can be checked in reasonable amount of time. The whole P vs NP issue is that whether a problem that can be checked (or comprehended or whose solutions can be verified) in reasonable time can be also solved in reasonable time?

*Mind-Blown alert* If this question is answered it will also imply that if one can understand a symphony, he’ll be equivalent to Mozart. (If he can comprehend; he can create).

  1. Riemann Hypothesis

This involves Mathematics. (Alert)

Prime numbers also have the annoying habit of not following any pattern. 3,137 is a prime and the next one after that is not until 3,163, but then 3,167 and 3,169 suddenly appear in quick succession, followed by another gap until 3,187. If you find one prime number, there is no way to tell where the next one is without checking all the numbers as you go.absurd

One possible way to get a handle on how primes are spaced is to calculate, for any number, how many primes there are smaller than it. This is exactly what Riemann did in 1859: he found a formula that would calculate how many primes there are below any given threshold.

So, Riemann had this famous function known as the zeta function.

zeta

What this means is zeta function gives you a sum of infinite series.

Suppose you enter s = 2. What zeta function will return is and so on till infinity and beyond….(Beyoncé alert!) actually till infinity only.

People later realised that they can put anything in the zeta function, any goddamn number except 1 and zeta function will return a unique number. This is where it gets interesting by any number I mean ANY NUMBER even complex numbers.

The fun part is at what values will the zeta function return a 0? Eh?

And the Riemann Hypothesis states that all complex numbers whose real part is 0.5 will make the zeta function’s value 0. This hypothesis actually solves the problem of how many primes number are distributed between some limit, which is a topic from a completely different branch of mathematics. So, math nerds …get going.

  1. Poincare Conjecture.

This belongs to a branch called ‘Topology’ which is basically the stream that studies shapes and bending of shapes. In topology, you cannot bend a shape with one hole into a shape with no hole. A coffee cup and a doughnut are transformable into one other because both have one hole hence the joke “Topologists can’t tell the difference between their coffee cup and their doughnut. (N.B I agree it is not funny. What can we do?)

topologists_coffee_doughnu_mug

The conjecture says that any shape that is closed and has no holes can be transformed into a sphere. (….wait for it) and this is valid for any higher dimensions too. Easier said than done.

[Sorry to say but a Russian already proved this one aaaaaaaaand he refused the money *like a boss*. It took over 10 days for a group of American mathematicians to actually understand his proof]

  1. Navier-Stokes Equation.

Navier-Stokes Equations are like the pillars of fluid mechanics. A large amount of important works and results in physics as well as engineering are based on Navier-Stokes Equation. It governs the motion of a fluid (liquid or gas). So far so good? Okay, so, where’s the million dollar catch?

SoapFilmTurbulence

Here it is. Turbulence. It is a time dependent chaotic behaviour of fluids which cannot be accounted in the Navier-Stokes equation. The solution of N-S equations of turbulent flow are very difficult or sometimes unstable.

All you gotta do is successfully explain Turbulence in Navier-Stokes equation, and Ka-ching!!

  1. Hodge Conjecture.

In order to get a grip on Hodge’s Conjecture-and claim your million dollars, you should be good at thinking about doughnuts. I promise I’ll stop talking on this the moment it gets too complex.[There is a picture of doughnuts for you,don’t worry]

Ok, here goes. Earlier, there were two groups of people studying two different things, Algebra and Geometry. Algebraists dealt with equations and Geometrists dealt with shapes.

Later, both the parties realised that what if both subjects are the same and can be connected *shockingly gasps* This is why your high school teacher taught you y=mx+c (algebra) is actually line (geometry). So, they teamed up to solve greater problems, save the world, etc. Sometimes, algebra would fail to explain something then geometry would do it for algebra and obviously, vice versa.

*awwww, I so ship them*

Mathematicians didn’t stop at lines and circles they moved on to complicated entities called “shapes” which could be explained using even higher algebraic entities known as “algebraic cycles” If an algebraic cycle was a smooth and nice shape then it was called “manifold”.

Now, they went on looking what happens if you draw “shapes” on “manifold”. Imagine a chocolate triangle drawn over a nice smooth glistening doughnut and another doughnut with a pentagon instead of a triangle. Are they the same? Yes.

Doughnuts-illustrate-the--007

The algebraists did something different. They kept on adding new equations to their existing algebraic cycle to produce a new algebraic cycle over existing manifold.

Soon, people realised that what both the guys did were actually the same thing. The difficulty was nobody had any idea how to prove that if you could draw a shape –possibly nasty- on a manifold, then you could stretch it or bend it into a less complicated shape that can be explained by an algebraic cycle.

William Hodge had a great idea, but could never prove it. If you can prove it then prize is yours. Hodge’s conjecture actually uses complex co-ordinates and complex spatial dimensions, and yes as I had promised, this is where I stop.

  1. Birch Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.

Once upon a time, there was a man named Diophantus. He had a spark for algebra and because of his works in mathematics, he is now known as the Father of Algebra. He had put forth certain problems, known as Diophantine Equations or problems, some of them were solved in the coming ages by heroes such as Fermat and some other mathematicians. The unsolved ones were passed onto generations of future mathematicians.

Precisely, three problems included something known as the elliptical curve which looks like this.

elliptical curve

Now if you know what an ellipse looks like you would probably go “Wtf dude, Ain’t no ellipse in here!”

You are right elliptical curves have nothing to do with ellipses, then why the name? Eh, because they are great deal in elliptical integration which is not our concern right now. So about these elliptical curves which have the equation,images

What’s the big fuss?

Elliptic curve E. The problem is to find all the solutions (x, y) which satisfy the equation from which our E is made. If we call this set of points a family then we are asking to find a way to obtain all families or rather number of families. In mathematics this number of families of solutions is known as rank of an elliptical curve. Rank (E).

For that we have the L-function  who is a close cousin of the Riemann zeta function we saw earlier. But difference is L-function gives us the points on the elliptical curve. Isn’t that what we want? Eh? Happy?

What Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer said was very simple. An elliptical curve has infinitely many solutions if and only if L-function’s value is 0. This has never been proved but has been used in various breakthroughs of mathematics. There. All yours, folks.

  1. Yang-Mills existence and Mass gap.

The fun part of having a gigantic pile of unexplainable stuff is that there is equally large scope for theories to explain it. Choose a topic that you want to explain, start from scratch, make a hypothesis, test it with experiments and VOILA! You have your own theory. And that is what people have been trying to do since centuries about the phenomena of the Universe like dark matter, dark energy, neutrino oscillations or quantum gravity.

Yang-Mills theory is similar to those theories. So, why is it the elephant in the room? Because it claims to explain everything except gravitation. Quantum Electrodynamics (which is a specialised study of how light and matter interact), Strong and Weak Forces, The Standard Model in particle physics (of what everything is made up).

Yang-Mills theory explains everything. Not going into the details, I’ll just say Yang-Mills theory unifies all previous theories and shows that there exist a special type of symmetry (gauge symmetry) between everything.

everything sucks

One theory to rule them all. One theory to explain them all. One theory and I am the Master of the Universe!

Alas, this theory is yet to be proved. The experiments are being carried out, you know, the ones where two nasty particles go bangity bang against each other in that ginormous, underground tunnel in Geneva.

 

*Phew*

So that’s it, we are done. Seven ways that can make you a millionaire. (Well, technically, six).

If anybody out there reading this actually solves one of these and filles his/her pockets with loads of money, please, please don’t forget us. We would be eternally grateful.

2227388-richierich

That’s all folks. Stay classy and thank you for stopping by.

-Ajinkya Gawali

Please contact us for any doubts or requests.

Email: captainknowledge1@gmail.com

We love to read your comments too.

Extremophiles!

We humans consider ourselves as the strongest guys on the planet. What if I tell you a bunch of microorganisms are far stronger than us…? Yep, they can defeat us easily, even though you might be hitting the gym every day. These little sons of microbe bitches (hehe) are called EXTREMOPHILES. They are super microbes. You can very well call them the Avengers and the Justice League of microbes :p

So let’s dive into the world of EXTREMOPHILES

It lift’s ,bro.

Now, people, don’t be fooled by their name; no one is an ardent extremity lover (except for that dumb guy whom you constantly see on the Discovery channel :p) Extremophiles have undergone astonishing adaptations through the process of evolution, they are strengthened by Nature to survive her wrath in conditions where geniuses like us eventually pray for ‘one last chance’. (appropriate meme)

Ergo, they can stay alive in extreme surroundings which are, by and large, deemed to be unfit for survival of living beings.

(Just think about it, they can even survive your girlfriend’s periods.)

Okay , I’m really sorry.

 

So, the extremophiles. No exaggeration meant, but they are everywhere!

Extremophiles are something more than just bacteria. Consider these dudes called thermophiles; they can survive at high temperatures. In fact, they reproduce ONLY at high temperatures. This makes them unique and kinky.

As there are thermophiles, there are many other categories of extremophiles. Shoot.

Acidophiles –

Nope not that kind of acidophiles.

 

 

These dudes do not mind acidic conditions. They have a fetish for acids, Lord save this world. Put these little guys into acid and game on. The archeanPicrophilaceae are the most acidophilic organisms known and are capable of growing at even negative pH values.

 

Anaerobe –

Cute , aren’t they?

 

These microbes survive without any oxygen. Unlike us, anaerobes CAN live without oxygen (Where is your GOD NOW?) Yup, anaerobes are the guys who can survive in space without wearing those unflattering space suits (Beat that, humans! Heuheuehe.) And they are SOOOOOOOO CUTTTTTTTTTE ….Though no experiments have been performed to confirm this.

 

Halophiles

KILL THEM! KILL THEM WITH FIRE!

Halophiles live in high salt concentration. These dudes basically eat salt. Period. The regions in which they live have fluctuating salinity. Therefore, they need to adapt and be very flexible as the conditions demand. They make the best boyfriends.

 

Xerophiles

 

Water, as we know, is the medium responsible for birth of life on the earth. Xerophiles are the amazing organisms which are capable of living almost without water!

FUN FACT: These guys hate bathingHence they are found in deserts which haven’t seen rain for decades or ever more.They literally like it dirty.

 

Piezophiles Pressure increases as we go deeper and deeper into the ocean. Mathematically, the pressure is calculated as ‘h*ρ*g’ (FUCK YOU, MATHS). Human body, beyond a certain limit, cannot balance this external pressure. As a result, the poor being dies after being brutally crushed by Nature or a difficult physics test. Once again the extremophiles laugh at our frailty. These Piezophiles are found over terrestrial, subsurface and oceanic trench. They are rumoured to have 100% success at job interviewes. Such a great ability!

 

 

Radio resistant – The problem of ozone depletion and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation is discussed a lot these days (STOP GLOBAL WARMING. It will give you too much tan). These extremophiles are radio resistant. (Do these people ever stop being awesome, really now.)

Deinococcus radioduran is the leader of them all. This guy can tolerate 20 kGy of gamma radiation up to 1000 joule per sq. metre! (Go “OMG!!” after reading that sentence for greater impact ) No wonder why we chose this muscular guy to decode a complete genome. This guy can repair itself after UV rays destroy it. It is basically the Wolverine, people.

Oligotroph – Oligotrophs are the organisms which live in an environment having limited nutrient supply. This is a fairly wide range of organisms. Oligotrophic lakes are home to oligotrophs. All super models are rumored to be oligotrophs.

 

Other than these, as we have seen, there are poly extremophiles which belong to two or more such classes. There are some extremophiles which survive in different gravity conditions whereas normal cells behave abnormally. Thus, the world of super microbes is full of mysteries… And studying these super microbes may prove helpful in making whom we could call STAN LEE’S SUPER HUMANS a reality.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewnews.html?id=462

http://en.wikipedia.org/

http://www.theguardian.com/science

https://rybicki.wordpress.com/
Raj Narvekar

If you have any doubts please get in touch with us…please .. we have no friends.

Email: captainknowledge1@gmail.com

DOWNLOAD OUR EXCLUSIVE FREE ANDROID APP  HERE : http://goo.gl/Fs9nbl

LIKE US ON FACEBOOK OR WE WILL KILL PUPPIES  : http://goo.gl/ch9cg1

AND TWITTER : http://goo.gl/pw0hWr

AND QUORA : http://goo.gl/XndilW

How to write a song in 10 minutes or less .Whatsay #3

First of all , let me clarify a few things about this article

  1. This article is for beginners 
  2. The songs that you will write after reading this article aren’t going to win you a grammy. They are going to be average songs which are generally enough to impress a school or college crowd but not professional musicians .
  3. Some of the material in this article is based on my taste.
  4. This is mainly the rhythm part of the song you will learn. I play a guitar,but if you have a keyboard/piano I think it should work fine too.

 

 

 

For me , song writing is a really satisfying way to cope with sadness. I use it as an outlet for emotions and frankly speaking it  helps a lot. And I mean a lot. But we will deal with my feelings when we meet for coffee of something *Wink* , right now , let’s just get down to it.

There are basically four things we need to focus on to create a mediocre song

  1. Chord progression.
  2. Strumming pattern.
  3. Lyrics .
  4. Structure of the song.

So , first , let’s go down on chord progression.

CHORD PROGRESSION.

 

Perhaps the best analogy used to describe chords is that they are like the background colors of the painting. You choose the color as per the general mood of the painting, just like you use ‘red’ to describe hot or ‘blue’ for cold. So, perhaps the most basic thing about these colors is that majors are happy and minors are sad.

So , to be a little more detailed on this matter, the key of C is generally  happy , D is classical , G is tragic ,F- is passionate , E- Disapproving .

Let’s take a look at the Major chord family in D.( The major scale formula is R-W-W-H-W-W-W-H , i.e Root note , whole step from that , whole step from that , half step from that , whole step , whole step , half step.)

So , we begin with the D major scale , which is

D , E , F# ,G , A , B , C# , D So , The chord family is

I)D- Major – Root

II)E- Minor

III)F#-Minor

IV)G- Major- Sub dominant

V)A- Major – Dominant

VI)B-Diminished

VII)C#-Minor

Here , you can consider the Majors like the core of the family. D is the root , G major is called the ‘Sub-dominant’ , and A is the dominant.(I.IV.V)

And , well there are a ton of songs out there which consist of only root , sub-dominant and dominant. And , you might as well start with this pattern and go one chord for each 4 measures .i.e I,IV,V,I of any family you choose.

If you are writing a sad or thoughtful ballad , you might want to use I,IV,V,V for the verses.

An energetic song would use I , III, ,IV, VI 

Other common progressions are  I,II,IV,V    ,   I , IV , I ,V  etc

For the purposes of this article , we shall use The pattern I,II,IV,V in D major.

i.e D , Em, G, A

Now , you may want your chorus to sound different than the verse, I know I do . So ,we will use this handy thing called the circle of fifths

 

 

 

 

What we can do now is use the note directly below our root , or the adjacent ones. You might have noticed that the outer circle is the major circle and the inner circle is the minor circle. Since I already have set a major ‘mood’ , I will continue that trend and use A(I actually would have preferred to go for Bm , but this will be easier to play if you are playing along)

And what’s I,II,IV,V for A?

Well it’s A,Bm,D,E

So , Verse-  D , Em, G, A

Chorus- A,Bm,D,E.

So far so good.

Strumming pattern.

I want you to take a notebook and write down the numbers 1 to 8 as rows.The numbers from 1 to 8 are measures(You have 4 chords , so this pattern will repeat itself twice i.e 4 measures per chord…or you can use what you think sounds best, this is just a suggestion). Consider that one ‘strum’.

Now , the odd numbers can hold the down strums , and the even numbers can hold the up strums. We will represent downward strums as D , upward strums as U , and Pauses as P.

Now umm… make a pattern , any pattern that you think will fit best. For this article let’s use the following ones

Verse- D P D U D U D U,

and

Chorus – D U P U D U D U

Lyrics.

To be quite fair, I cannot help you much on this part. All I can tell you is that the lyrics should be consistent with the mood of the song, And that you can use the common meter if you want to make the song easier to sing

The common meter is very accurately and beautifully explained by Vsauce in this poem

“The first line has 8 syllables

the next contains just 6

For emphasis , Iambic stress

That’s it no other tricks”

Some songs in the common meter are Amazing grace , Pokemon theme song , Gilligans Island , House of the rising sun , etc.

Structure.

Constructing a song is very similar to constructing a building.. except you know..you can actually construct a song without studying in college.

The basic key parts of a song are

  • Intro
  • Verse
  • Pre-chorus
  • Chorus
  • Bridge
  • Solo
  • Outro

Writing the Intro , solo and outro is the job of the lead guitarist and since we are mainly focusing on rhythm here , we will leave that out. Although know that it is perfectly okay if your song does not have a solo or an intro. We are not aiming for the Grammy’s here. We just want to create something to impress chicks or guys or just want to channel out our emotions .

We will upload a video soon , which will be even more helpful to get you going and will feature a song dedicated to all our fans, so stay tuned. 😉

Rishikesh Jani

If you have any doubts please get in touch with us…please .. we have no friends.

Email: captainknowledge1@gmail.com

DOWNLOAD OUR EXCLUSIVE FREE ANDROID APP  HERE : http://goo.gl/Fs9nbl

LIKE US ON FACEBOOK OR WE WILL KILL PUPPIES  : http://goo.gl/ch9cg1

AND TWITTER : http://goo.gl/pw0hWr

AND QUORA : http://goo.gl/XndilW

 

 

 

Introduction to Programming : C++ #2

Hey, guys!

We are back  with 2nd part of C++. In case you haven’t been through the 1st part here is the link. :p

At times, you have to make decisions in your life. when you’re running low on your pocket money, you be like “OMG a Bradely Cooper movie or a Ryan Gosling movie”

Pretty much.

It’s really difficult at times! We know! similarly, your program too needs to make decisions sometimes and they do it logically, with the help of some statements. They control the flow of the execution of your program and are called Control structures. There are three types of control structures:

  1. Sequential (Default)

  2. Conditional

  3. Looping.

Let’s learn about each types one by one.

First up. The most basic of all.

1] SEQUENTIAL.

When you type and tell your machine to execute your cute little code, the execution needs begin from somewhere, and what’s the best place to begin something. Yes,”From the Start”.

The execution begins from the start and the control is given to the function named main(). Duh. Now, the compiler asks “Now that I have started, what I do with the control”. The answer is the ‘sequential control structure’ .It is just simple common sense, in this the control follows a straight path, No turns. And more importantly NO GOING BACK. Just keep on executing from the start to the end.

Moving on.

2] CONDITIONAL

This is something better than the previous one, Better because it is not boring as sequential.Conditional control structure actually have various members. Each member has it’s own feature, Now it’s up to you and how you want the execution to happen. Hence giving you the power the control the flow.As the name suggests you get that power through CONDITIONS.And HOW EXACTLY DO WE DO THAT? Using these guys(the members of the conditional control structure).

  1. If statement.

  2. If else statement.

  3. Nested If else

The first two are the most basic conditional statements. Nested if else is made using multiple if else statements.(We’ll see how, further in detail.).Let us now get an idea about what each one of these guys do.Ok? Here we go.

If : It’s Friday night! And you have a sleepover at your friend’s place tomorrow and you ask your mom for persmission. She says that she will allow you only “if” you do the dishes for a week. otherwise you don’t go and continue your routine work which you will do nonetheless. This is exactly what ‘If‘ control statement does in programming languages.

if(condition)

statement1;

This basically means that if the condition is fulfilled, statement1 is executed , otherwise the statement is skipped. i.e, if you do the dishes you are allowed to go, otherwise you continue to do your routine work.

If else : This is really easy to understand.. This gives you extended power than “if” .A condition’s outcome is true or false. Nothing else .Like “7 is greater than 2?”TRUE “Sky is green?”FALSE “Megan Fox is hotter than your girlfriend?”, You get the point.Right? So you have a statement and you check whether it’s true or false. ‘If’ it is true, execute statement1 else (i.e, it is false) do statement2 (programming is all about execution of statements :P) an if-else statement looks like :

if(condition)

statement1;

else

statement2;

Getting this thing real.

if(2>1)

cout<<“2 is greater than 1”;

else

cout<<“2 is smaller than 1”;

Output : 2 is greater than 1

Here, the first statement is executed since the first condition is true. Else, the second statement is executed.

Nested If else: Nested means inside one another.Nested if else means if-else inside an if-else.Yes, If-else-ception. If the outer “IF” is true than the control moves inside and encounter another “IF” and checks it’s truth value. Same happens for else.

if(condition1) //outer If

{

if(condition2) //inner if

statement1;

else //inner else

statement2;

}

else if(condition 3) //outer else

Statement3;

else

Statement4;

So , if condition1 is true and condition 2 is false, Statement2 is excuted.You can try for the rest on your own.

That’s all about conditional control structure.

Lastly, It’s time for the for some looping. Oh yeah!

3]LOOPING

Just as conditional has members ,viz If, If-else ,Nested if-else. Looping has too, and they are…*drumrolls*

1)The for Loop

2)The while Loop

3)The do-while Loop

The ‘for’ loop: No no, it doesn’t do anything “for” you, well not directly at least, but it performs an instruction or a set of instructions for the condition is true. So, It will keep on reapeating the instructions till the condition is false,basically, it executes a set of statements IN A LOOP. The condition is checked after every loop cycle, and once the condition is false,*bam*the control is thrown outside the loop. This loop works fine only if you know how many times you have to swirl around in the loop. What if I don’t know? Don’t worry we have answer for that too. But first. The for loop.

Syntax:

for (initialization; condition; increase or decrease)

statement;

It works in the following way:

  • Initialization is executed. Generally, this declares a counter variable, and sets it to some initial value. This is executed a single time, at the beginning of the loop.

  • condition is checked. If it is true, the loop continues; otherwise, the loop ends, and statement is skipped, going directly to the end step.

  • statement is executed. As usual, it can be either a single statement or a block enclosed in curly braces { }.

  • Increment/decrement is executed, and the loop gets back to step 2(where condition is checked).

  • The loop ends: execution continues by the next statement after it.

The three fields in a for-loop are optional. They can be left empty, but in all cases the semicolon signs between them are required. A loop with no condition is equivalent to a loop with true as condition (i.e., an infinite loop).

Let’s see an example to understand it better:

for (int timer = 10; timer > 0 ; timer – – )

{

cout << timer<< “, “;

}

cout << “liftoff!”<<endl;

Output : 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, liftoff!

Now, the for loop has two siblings; while and do while

while: Earlier I mentioned that “for” loop is used when we know how many times to swirl, but what if I don’t know how many times? What do I do? While loop is our savior While loop simply repeats statement while expression is true. If, after any execution of statement, expression is no longer true, the loop ends, and the program continues right after the loop. It is an entry controlled loop which means that a condition is checked before entering the loop.

while (expression) statement

int main ()

{

int n =32 ;

while (n>0)

{

cout<<n<<” “;

n = n-5;

}

}

Output : 32 27 22 17 12 7 2

The youngest sibling of all the three brothers is the do-while loop. Stubborn as hell! No matter what, it will do what it wants at least once. This part is included in the do part of the loop. Then, the condtion is checked i.e., after the loop runs for the first time then it decides if it wants to enter the loop again or not.

do statement while (condition);

NOTE: this is the only loop in which there is a semicolon after the ‘while’;

Let’s see an example

Let’s think of a situation in which you have a crush on the cutest guy in the college and one day you decide to talk to him. The first time, you will talk to him no matter what. But, there will be a second time or no depends on how the first encounter goes. The do-while loop works in a similar way. It looks something like this:

do

{

statements;

}

while ( condition );

for example:

x=0;

do {

cout<<“Hello, world!” ;

x++;

} while ( x != 0 );

here, “Hello, world!” is printed at least once till x=0 eventhough the condition is false.

So, That’s all folks. Stay tuned for new progamming stuff.Please contact us by email if you have any queries or suggestions.

Charmi Jagwani

Email: captainknowledge1@gmail.com

DOWNLOAD OUR EXCLUSIVE FREE ANDROID APP  HERE : http://goo.gl/Fs9nbl

LIKE US ON FACEBOOK OR WE WILL KILL PUPPIES  : http://goo.gl/ch9cg1

AND TWITTER : http://goo.gl/pw0hWr

AND QUORA : http://goo.gl/XndilW

And umm… wherever else you can find us.

Short How to #1 : How To Lucid Dream.

I don’t know about all of you guys , but I was a huge fan of the concept of the movie ‘Inception’. The idea to plant an idea into the mind of a person in a dream while he has no idea about it… I mean come on. It might have been ridiculous but don’t tell me you didn’t think of planting the idea in the head of that person you like to like you back. Don’t lie.. we will know.

U cn’t stp us nw , fgt.

 

The thing is , though , you’d be mindless while doing that under normal circumstances . That is , you will have no control whatsoever in that dream. You have no control in most of your dreams , do you? Or your life? How would you have known that you would be fired because you showed up to work without pants , or your girlfriend would leave you for a richer , more good looking guy without so much as saying goodbye….sorry I kinda got carried away there.

Anyway , wouldn’t it be nice if you could like..control your dreams? Well turns out you can. You can be this whole god-like being in a world full of banana people and butterflies and live in a mansion with a million good-looking suitors , all inclinations accommodated. How ? For the love of god , I’ll tell you how.. this is a ‘how to’ , you see?..idiot. A bit of clear vision first.

LUCID DREAMING is a technique of being awake in your dreams and controlling them.A fully lucid dream is tangiable,rich and visually detailed sometimes furnishing you with even greater awareness than you have right now. BASICALLY A Lucid Dream is “SIMS DELUXE 3D” fully cracked and with life like HD graphics that a gamer and stay home and make love to all night long.Want to enjoy a drink with Morgan Freeman? You can. want to soar over New york like Iron Man? You can. Want to bang Megan Fox?.Oh Yes!You can. Want to kill Joffrey over and over? Yes.you can. Want to re-live your first kiss?You can.What makes Lucid dreaming more than just a fantasy is its ability to interact with other parts for example if you decide to jump off Burj Khalifa. your body will experience similar adrenaline rush. as it would in real. your senses can feel everything you do (TIP: Always sleep with extra tissues. you never know. Emma Watson maybe around the  corner 😛 ).

STEP ONE: PREPARE YOURSELF

You gotta believe in yourself bro/sis. Before sleeping you have got to tell yourself that you will lucid dream tonight for sure.. you have to imagine it, you have to consciously auto-suggest your sub-conscious into having a lucid dream tonight.

STEP TWO: WRITE DOWN YOUR DREAMS

Oh , please , don’t you give me that look. A dream journal is the difference between banging Megan Fox in a dream and having an awkward  encounter with a stereotype of an Indian IT guy who goes by the name ‘Punjab’. You need to keep a journal besides your bed which you should fill everyday (Keep in mind that it says ‘Journal’  and not a ‘Diary’. If you don’t know the difference , a diary is all ‘ I , me , myself’ , while a journal reports the color of the sky , the eyes of your loved one , and the color of blood of the victims of a murder-rampage) Or , if your are as lazy as me , you can just record it on your phone in your own voice , and then listen to it or read it after you have had your morning coffee.

What happens after you read and listen to it , is that you start noticing patterns of a skeletal nature at the very least , and when you dream again , you are able to tell that it’s a dream.And that’s when all the fun begins

STEP THREE: RELAX….YES , SERIOUSLY.

This is important. The problem is that when you finally realize that you are lucid dreaming it is so unbelievable that your brain will attempt to move out of sleep. Over-excitement will also cause you to wake up so don’t go saying “I’m gonna blow shit up” the very second you start lucid dreaming.The first few of such dreams aren’t going to be pleasing. So it is extremely important to calm yourself . This will help you control your dream (Read: Bang XYZ)

STEP FOUR: REALITY CHECK

Another important step. Throughout the day , ask yourself questions like “Am I dreaming?” , and spin a top or something like Leonardo No Oscario did. Not because 0f Limbo.. infact there is no such thing as Limbo.. Inception lied to you. This is because when you get a habit of asking these questions , so start to incorporate it in a dream , which makes lucid dreaming a smooth sailing ship.

SOME THINGS TO REMEMBER:

A lucid dream is your turf. No one can mess with you on your turf unless it’s in a kinky way and you want them to. There are no laws of physics or anything. If you want 2+2 equals 5 , you can make 2+2 equal 5.. Why yes , you CAN go back in time and kill Hitler, and watch the Beatles play live. Your unconscious mind will help you find true answers to questions like “Am I happy?” ,”Do I really love him?” ,”Do I understand Pitbull’s songs? “, “What career should I choose?” etc. However , you still cannot create a honest politician.

– Rushaabh Saliya

 

PLEASE OH PLEASE LIKE US ON FACEBOOK BY CLICKING HERE

AND FOLLOW US ON TWITTER BY CLICKING HERE

Download our FREE & Exclusive Android App here

AND SEND US A MAIL OR LEAVE A COMMENT DOWN BELOW  IF YOU HAVE ANY DOUBTS . OUR EMAIL ADDRESS IS captainknowledge1@gmail.com

 

Hack’em to Sack’em

 

Ever got stuck in a game? Felt like you ran out of health or ammo too soon? Too bored to play the game legitimately?

Go on.

Go on.

Well, that is what cheat codes are for. But not all games have credible cheats. That’s where external hacks such as trainers and aimbots come in. Yeah, because hell with the developer,his fault he made this level difficult.I’ll fucking use a hack.

Those ‘hacks’ make our life easier but wouldn’t it be awesome if you could make your own hacks according to your needs and show them off to your friends(and to pickup nerdy/hot chicks too )? Using game hacks downloaded off of the internet always made me feel guilty, and they should, but then again, winning in a game using hacks made by someone else doesn’t make you better than the opponents in any way but making your own hacks to pawn them; well that counts for something.Right? Panzy-ass gamers, begging others for making hacks or using their stuff as it is, are called ‘leech’. It is frowned upon and we will try to not be a ‘leech’ as far as possible.

20140529065153-FreedomBraveheart

To all those who soil their pants at the mention of hacking- lookup what it really means before crying ‘wolf’. It is more sophisticated and easy to learn.I must inform you beforehand once you are through with this article and you have good grip over memory hacking, Don’t expect a call from FBI or CIA begging you to hack into super-villian alien organization. You can still brag about hacking a game though. That’s cool too, Trust me. It is.

This article will focus mostly on multiplayer game hacking but I’ll link a similar app to hack simple android games too.

Requirements:

1)      Don’t be a retard.

2)      A good enough PC to run a compiler/debugger alongside the game you are trying to hack(If you are aiming for a high end game for the new CoD series or Battlefield and such, your setup better be worth almost ₹60k or over,Simple logic bigger the whale bigger the boat).

3)      Some knowledge of the game you are trying to ‘hack’.

4)      Time and patience, it’s gonna be a lot of trial and error, be good at brute forcing.

5)      An internet connection, to Google all your doubts. (Hail Google. Who else can help in times of misery?)

6)      Shitload of caffeine and a nice playlist if you plan to go deeper into it  (That’s what she said).

What you’ll achieve by knowing a little about memory hacking:

1)      Guilt free way to win in games. (Well, guilt of being a leech)

2)      Reason to show off in front of friends.

3)      Scare the shit out of some noobs.

4)      Make others whine and flame and feel stupid (Satisfying, Eh?).

The real stuff:

So, fair warning. You will need to give this thing a good dedicated time to learn.(It’s easier you are smart.Duh.) You want it? You ready to put some effort? Then, I say you will have fun learning this. Now, let’s get down with it.(That’s what she said)

Here’s what happens when you run any application on your PC (MAC users can gtfo). The contents of the application get loaded into the memory (RAM) where the processor can perform all sorts of operations on them. All the variables and functions and modules (the .dll files) get memory addresses allocated (we’ll just call them addys,cute?huh?) based on their size and type. Memory addys are always referred to as hexadecimal integers (0x), so get good at hex tables.(Number system of 16. For eg: 0 in decimal is

Consider any FPS (First Person Shooter) multiplayer game, and you will have the most obvious variables like health, ammo, position, angles and loads more. All those game trainers that give you infinite health or ammo, they just make the value at the corresponding addy stay the same even when it is supposed to change (mostly decrease). Those aimbots read your position and the enemy’s position from memory and calculate the angle you should be aiming at and write the value to the required memory location to make your player in game aim at the enemy. The logic behind them is this simple.

However, it takes some knowledge of a language to code in to make a decent looking hack, which we will NOT be covering in this tutorial. It’s more important to get good at finding the addys and making proper data structures before we start coding to use them.

It is not important that you know C++ or any related language but a little knowledge about assembly(ASM) language will come in handy… here’s why-

Languages like C++ are higher level languages where statements are just like how we would describe a problem in English but with a shitload of rules (syntaxes). But the computer does understand that language directly. All it knows to process is machine code (1011101010101101111101) which can also be represented as hexadecimal, obviously. Earlier, I said that the applications get loaded into the memory where operations can take place on them, but for arithmetic operations, even the memory isn’t enough, the values memory addresses get loaded into ‘registers’ where math can be performed on them. On our machines, registers are hardware that store 16bits of value that may represent an integer, float, string, etc.

ASM is a language of very limited keywords to use and every command has a corresponding hex notation that the processor can understand and perform. It is inhuman to write codes directly in ASM and that’s where higher level languages come in. A compiler converts the higher language source code into highly optimized binary code that the machine understands. Ideally, no program can ‘decompile’ machine code entirely but you can see the machine code and try to figure out what the source could be… this is called ‘Reverse Engineering’. Viewing/editing the assembly of a running application is called ‘debugging’. You’ll understand this shit better when we get to hacking a game for real.

For this tutorial, we will try to hack a game called Assault Cube. This is the simplest example of what a FPS game is and it’s like the “Hello World!” of game hacking. Download the game and these 2 programs that we will need for this all kinds of memory hacking – Cheat Engine and OllyDbg.

Cheat Engine (CE) is an easy to use tool to find some basic addys and freeze their value and also perform some basic debugging.

OllyDbg is a much more advanced debugger used for more than just games… we won’t touch Olly unless we absolutely have to.

I’ll post some screenshots of what I made when I started learning this shit using these exact same things.

This was just the intro, the real procedure will be smaller and quite easy if you read everything so far.

Hacking this shit:

1)      Fire up the game and play around for a few minutes. Try some game modes and different weapons. Play against some bots, see how retarded they act sometimes.

1

2)      Open Cheat Engine.

3)      Click on the magnifying glass thingy scanning a computer button.

4)      A process list pops up. Select the game process and click open. You can find the game process using task manager, if you don’t know what it is.

4

5)      In the value field, enter the current ammo of your weapon, in this case 5. Let the value type be ‘4 Bytes’ which is standard for integers. Ammo is obviously an integer value, you don’t fire half a bullet.

6)      Click “First Scan”. It will scan the memory addys accessed by the game for a value matching 5 and then list those addys on the column to the left. Don’t be surprised to get a high count of addys on your first scan.

6

7)      The addys in green are ‘static’ and the others are ‘dynamic’. Static addys are addys that will hold the value of the same token even if you restart the game. Dynamic addys may or may not hold the value for the same shit after a game restart, in this a case we need a pointer that will lead us to the correct addy every time, I’ll explain properly later. The addys coloured red are the ones that have changed value.

8)      Now fire a bullet so your ammo count reduces, in my case it becomes 4. You can fire more than one, no one gives a fuck, but don’t be a retard and empty your entire magazine (it’ll still work but you’d be stupid to do that). Enter the new value of ammo in the value box and click “Next Scan”, this will scan the addys on the left for a value matching 4 in my case.

8

9)      You can ignore the red ones as they changed their value without us shooting. Shoot again and check for a new value (in my case 2, might be different for you) to make sure we have the right ammo addy. Select the addys left in the list (should mostly be 2) and drag them down into the big white box or just click the red arrow thingy.

9

10)   Change the value of one of those addys by double clicking on them. Change it to any random number greater than the previous value, not too big though (the game may have a max limit on weapon ammo). See if the exact same change is reflected in the game.

10

11)   The ammo in game changed to the new number! Take a few shots to make the change wasn’t just visual (Sometimes when the value is changed the in game change is only visual i.e. it doesn’t work when you take some shots, because the addy was holding the variable responsible for the visual value not the real one). Delete the other addy as it is of no use.

 

12)   What addy you got is just a false summit. Sorry! We are not done yet.Can you guess why it is false summit? As I talked about earlier, this addy was not green when you found it. This means that if you close the game and look at the value at the same addy again, it won’t lead you to the ammo value. If it was static (green), we would find the same variable’s value at this addy every time.(True Summit) So… we cannot find this value manually again and again, you can’t show it off to your friends like that. We will need a pointer that will point us to the right variable everytime.

13)   So… what’s a pointer?
It’s a variable that stores the address of another variable (thereby ‘pointing’ to it).So take a piece of paper and ‘write’ out where you live, now throw that paper somewhere, That paper is your pointer. No matter what you are doing. The paper will lead us to you. Since addys(where variables live) are always expressed as hex, the value of a pointer is also expressed as hex (just a notation, value is still the same in decimal or hex but don’t ever forget the 0x before hex).
While we’re at this, let’s talk about data structures too. Here’s how most games store all the data for a client(player or a bot) (health, ammo, client num, team num, position, angles, velocity, etc.) – position is an array of 3 floats (X, Z, Y) or (X, Y, Z) call the axes whatever you want, doesn’t matter. So if you find the addy for X, that (addy for X) + 4 = (addy for Z) and that (addy for X) + 8 = (addy for Y) as the size of one float is 4 Bytes. Similarly you have your 2 angles in float (MOUSEX and MOUSEY) i.e. (θ and φ) stored next to each other. The addys for health and ammo won’t be far away either. All these addys are always at a fixed distance away from each other. We define a PLAYERBASE addy that marks the start of all the info about our player, and we define an offset for each variable we need. The offset is the distance from the base to the variable’s addy, always read out as hex. When the game tries to change the value of any variable, say health, a register first points to the PLAYERBASE and then the offset is used to give the correct addy.

14)   Why did I bother explain this shit so much?
Because we don’t always look for a pointer to the health addy directly, we find the offset first and the (health addy) – (offset) = PLAYERBASE.(getting it?) And we look for a pointer to the PLAYERBASE which can lead us to a whole lot of important variables addys if we know their offsets.So what we do is, We search for one attribute, trace it back to the base. Once we have the base we have all the attributes. (Weirdly, I feel a little evil ) So let’s just do this thing to understand it better. Blindly do what I say for your first try, you’ll understand it as you do it.

15)   Right click on the addy we have in CE and select “Find out what writes to this address”. This will show you the ASM instruction that is responsible for writing to this address. Click yes on the message that pops up. Now, a window appears, which will show the instructions that are writing to the addy holding ammo value. Go in the game and fire a shot and come back to this window, an instruction should appear in the window. Click on stop.

15

16)   The instruction is dec (esi), which means it will decrement the value stored at the addy pointed by register esi by one.
Obviously this is how your ammo decrements by one each time you shoot. Let’s try something here… select the instruction and click on “Show disassembler”. Double click on dec (esi) and change it to inc (esi), which obviously means what you think it means.
Add a comment in the comment field next to it so you know this is the addy to look for to find ammo.

16

17)   Go in the game, take some shots, and see that our ammo is now increasing instead of decreasing!
If you scroll up once is the ASM that we were looking, just above dec (esi), you would find an instruction referring to (esi + 14). 0x14 is the offset for ammo.*Bruce Willis’ voice* Now let’s get that pointer.
Right click on the ammo addy we have in our list and select “Pointer scan for this address”. Select “Stop traversing a path when a static has been found” and select “Pointer must end with specific offsets” and type 14 in the new box that comes up. Change the “Max level” from 5 to 2. Click “OK”.

17

18)   A window will appear a list of pointers. Double click any of the pointers starting with “ac_client.exe”.

18

19)   And we found our pointer, now close the game and open it again, load the process in CE and keep the addys in the list.
We see that the old dynamic addy is now holding some shit value, while our pointer leads us to the correct one! (Found your paper!!)
The pointer has 2 offsets…  It is a second level pointer. It points to a pointer that points to the right addy!

19

20)   Do the same to find your health and ammo for pistol and so on. CE can save all the addys in a .CT file, or you could save them in a text file. Change the value type to float and scan type to increased/decreased/changed/unchanged value. With a little logic, you can get the addys for position and mouse angles too!

21)   Another way to get those addys would be to use CE’s “Data Dissect” tool.
Double click the saved pointer and change the offset from 14 to 0.
Note down the addy that it’s pointing to (P->).
Click on “Memory View”, then “Tools” menu and then “Dissect data/structures”.
Put in the addy you wrote down seconds ago.
“Structures Menu” and then “Define new structure” and just click ok/next and you’ll get this…

21

22)   This is a gold mine…    look how the variables in here change based on your actions and get the offsets or important variables.
Figure out how to store them in a fashionable way in CE.

23)   Click on the small box next to the pointer to freeze the value of that addy.

24)   And You are good to go.Go show off. Pick up chicks.

25)   You can practice with small games or other things. Steps remains the same, but challenges are fun. Good luck

26)   Post any doubts/suggestions in comments.

And there’s a lot more to making a memory hack than this.

If asked for, I would like to  make another in depth tutorial on using CE and introduce OllyDbg too.
Watch this guy’s CE tutorials to know some more features of CE, Fleep Hacks.
He also did tutorials on OllyDbg that are very helpful.

Please have look at  GameKiller. It is used for hacking Android Games.
I hope I covered most of the basics in here. Tell me what you liked , Tell me what you didn’t.

Keep in touch and we’ll have some more fun.

                         -By Harsh Daga. 

 

PLEASE FOR THE LOVE OF GOD LIKE US ON FACEBOOK! https://www.facebook.com/captainknowledge

And stay updated with our latests posts and plans.

Also , Twitter : https://twitter.com/Capn_Knowledge

Check out our exclusive Android app :  http://goo.gl/URslq7

And please leave comments suggesting what you would like to read next.

This article was written by a guest writer. Do you have any thing you would like to share?

WANT TO WRITE FOR US AS A GUEST WRITER ? EMAIL US AT captainknowledge1@gmail.com