We humans consider ourselves as the strongest guys on the planet. What if I tell you a bunch of microorganisms are far stronger than us…? Yep, they can defeat us easily, even though you might be hitting the gym every day. These little sons of microbe bitches (hehe) are called EXTREMOPHILES. They are super microbes. You can very well call them the Avengers and the Justice League of microbes :p

So let’s dive into the world of EXTREMOPHILES

It lift’s ,bro.

Now, people, don’t be fooled by their name; no one is an ardent extremity lover (except for that dumb guy whom you constantly see on the Discovery channel :p) Extremophiles have undergone astonishing adaptations through the process of evolution, they are strengthened by Nature to survive her wrath in conditions where geniuses like us eventually pray for ‘one last chance’. (appropriate meme)

Ergo, they can stay alive in extreme surroundings which are, by and large, deemed to be unfit for survival of living beings.

(Just think about it, they can even survive your girlfriend’s periods.)

Okay , I’m really sorry.


So, the extremophiles. No exaggeration meant, but they are everywhere!

Extremophiles are something more than just bacteria. Consider these dudes called thermophiles; they can survive at high temperatures. In fact, they reproduce ONLY at high temperatures. This makes them unique and kinky.

As there are thermophiles, there are many other categories of extremophiles. Shoot.

Acidophiles –

Nope not that kind of acidophiles.



These dudes do not mind acidic conditions. They have a fetish for acids, Lord save this world. Put these little guys into acid and game on. The archeanPicrophilaceae are the most acidophilic organisms known and are capable of growing at even negative pH values.


Anaerobe –

Cute , aren’t they?


These microbes survive without any oxygen. Unlike us, anaerobes CAN live without oxygen (Where is your GOD NOW?) Yup, anaerobes are the guys who can survive in space without wearing those unflattering space suits (Beat that, humans! Heuheuehe.) And they are SOOOOOOOO CUTTTTTTTTTE ….Though no experiments have been performed to confirm this.




Halophiles live in high salt concentration. These dudes basically eat salt. Period. The regions in which they live have fluctuating salinity. Therefore, they need to adapt and be very flexible as the conditions demand. They make the best boyfriends.




Water, as we know, is the medium responsible for birth of life on the earth. Xerophiles are the amazing organisms which are capable of living almost without water!

FUN FACT: These guys hate bathingHence they are found in deserts which haven’t seen rain for decades or ever more.They literally like it dirty.


Piezophiles Pressure increases as we go deeper and deeper into the ocean. Mathematically, the pressure is calculated as ‘h*ρ*g’ (FUCK YOU, MATHS). Human body, beyond a certain limit, cannot balance this external pressure. As a result, the poor being dies after being brutally crushed by Nature or a difficult physics test. Once again the extremophiles laugh at our frailty. These Piezophiles are found over terrestrial, subsurface and oceanic trench. They are rumoured to have 100% success at job interviewes. Such a great ability!



Radio resistant – The problem of ozone depletion and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation is discussed a lot these days (STOP GLOBAL WARMING. It will give you too much tan). These extremophiles are radio resistant. (Do these people ever stop being awesome, really now.)

Deinococcus radioduran is the leader of them all. This guy can tolerate 20 kGy of gamma radiation up to 1000 joule per sq. metre! (Go “OMG!!” after reading that sentence for greater impact ) No wonder why we chose this muscular guy to decode a complete genome. This guy can repair itself after UV rays destroy it. It is basically the Wolverine, people.

Oligotroph – Oligotrophs are the organisms which live in an environment having limited nutrient supply. This is a fairly wide range of organisms. Oligotrophic lakes are home to oligotrophs. All super models are rumored to be oligotrophs.


Other than these, as we have seen, there are poly extremophiles which belong to two or more such classes. There are some extremophiles which survive in different gravity conditions whereas normal cells behave abnormally. Thus, the world of super microbes is full of mysteries… And studying these super microbes may prove helpful in making whom we could call STAN LEE’S SUPER HUMANS a reality.






Raj Narvekar

If you have any doubts please get in touch with us…please .. we have no friends.

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Introduction to Programming : C++ #2

Hey, guys!

We are back  with 2nd part of C++. In case you haven’t been through the 1st part here is the link. :p

At times, you have to make decisions in your life. when you’re running low on your pocket money, you be like “OMG a Bradely Cooper movie or a Ryan Gosling movie”

Pretty much.

It’s really difficult at times! We know! similarly, your program too needs to make decisions sometimes and they do it logically, with the help of some statements. They control the flow of the execution of your program and are called Control structures. There are three types of control structures:

  1. Sequential (Default)

  2. Conditional

  3. Looping.

Let’s learn about each types one by one.

First up. The most basic of all.


When you type and tell your machine to execute your cute little code, the execution needs begin from somewhere, and what’s the best place to begin something. Yes,”From the Start”.

The execution begins from the start and the control is given to the function named main(). Duh. Now, the compiler asks “Now that I have started, what I do with the control”. The answer is the ‘sequential control structure’ .It is just simple common sense, in this the control follows a straight path, No turns. And more importantly NO GOING BACK. Just keep on executing from the start to the end.

Moving on.


This is something better than the previous one, Better because it is not boring as sequential.Conditional control structure actually have various members. Each member has it’s own feature, Now it’s up to you and how you want the execution to happen. Hence giving you the power the control the flow.As the name suggests you get that power through CONDITIONS.And HOW EXACTLY DO WE DO THAT? Using these guys(the members of the conditional control structure).

  1. If statement.

  2. If else statement.

  3. Nested If else

The first two are the most basic conditional statements. Nested if else is made using multiple if else statements.(We’ll see how, further in detail.).Let us now get an idea about what each one of these guys do.Ok? Here we go.

If : It’s Friday night! And you have a sleepover at your friend’s place tomorrow and you ask your mom for persmission. She says that she will allow you only “if” you do the dishes for a week. otherwise you don’t go and continue your routine work which you will do nonetheless. This is exactly what ‘If‘ control statement does in programming languages.



This basically means that if the condition is fulfilled, statement1 is executed , otherwise the statement is skipped. i.e, if you do the dishes you are allowed to go, otherwise you continue to do your routine work.

If else : This is really easy to understand.. This gives you extended power than “if” .A condition’s outcome is true or false. Nothing else .Like “7 is greater than 2?”TRUE “Sky is green?”FALSE “Megan Fox is hotter than your girlfriend?”, You get the point.Right? So you have a statement and you check whether it’s true or false. ‘If’ it is true, execute statement1 else (i.e, it is false) do statement2 (programming is all about execution of statements :P) an if-else statement looks like :





Getting this thing real.


cout<<“2 is greater than 1”;


cout<<“2 is smaller than 1”;

Output : 2 is greater than 1

Here, the first statement is executed since the first condition is true. Else, the second statement is executed.

Nested If else: Nested means inside one another.Nested if else means if-else inside an if-else.Yes, If-else-ception. If the outer “IF” is true than the control moves inside and encounter another “IF” and checks it’s truth value. Same happens for else.

if(condition1) //outer If


if(condition2) //inner if


else //inner else



else if(condition 3) //outer else




So , if condition1 is true and condition 2 is false, Statement2 is excuted.You can try for the rest on your own.

That’s all about conditional control structure.

Lastly, It’s time for the for some looping. Oh yeah!


Just as conditional has members ,viz If, If-else ,Nested if-else. Looping has too, and they are…*drumrolls*

1)The for Loop

2)The while Loop

3)The do-while Loop

The ‘for’ loop: No no, it doesn’t do anything “for” you, well not directly at least, but it performs an instruction or a set of instructions for the condition is true. So, It will keep on reapeating the instructions till the condition is false,basically, it executes a set of statements IN A LOOP. The condition is checked after every loop cycle, and once the condition is false,*bam*the control is thrown outside the loop. This loop works fine only if you know how many times you have to swirl around in the loop. What if I don’t know? Don’t worry we have answer for that too. But first. The for loop.


for (initialization; condition; increase or decrease)


It works in the following way:

  • Initialization is executed. Generally, this declares a counter variable, and sets it to some initial value. This is executed a single time, at the beginning of the loop.

  • condition is checked. If it is true, the loop continues; otherwise, the loop ends, and statement is skipped, going directly to the end step.

  • statement is executed. As usual, it can be either a single statement or a block enclosed in curly braces { }.

  • Increment/decrement is executed, and the loop gets back to step 2(where condition is checked).

  • The loop ends: execution continues by the next statement after it.

The three fields in a for-loop are optional. They can be left empty, but in all cases the semicolon signs between them are required. A loop with no condition is equivalent to a loop with true as condition (i.e., an infinite loop).

Let’s see an example to understand it better:

for (int timer = 10; timer > 0 ; timer – – )


cout << timer<< “, “;


cout << “liftoff!”<<endl;

Output : 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, liftoff!

Now, the for loop has two siblings; while and do while

while: Earlier I mentioned that “for” loop is used when we know how many times to swirl, but what if I don’t know how many times? What do I do? While loop is our savior While loop simply repeats statement while expression is true. If, after any execution of statement, expression is no longer true, the loop ends, and the program continues right after the loop. It is an entry controlled loop which means that a condition is checked before entering the loop.

while (expression) statement

int main ()


int n =32 ;

while (n>0)


cout<<n<<” “;

n = n-5;



Output : 32 27 22 17 12 7 2

The youngest sibling of all the three brothers is the do-while loop. Stubborn as hell! No matter what, it will do what it wants at least once. This part is included in the do part of the loop. Then, the condtion is checked i.e., after the loop runs for the first time then it decides if it wants to enter the loop again or not.

do statement while (condition);

NOTE: this is the only loop in which there is a semicolon after the ‘while’;

Let’s see an example

Let’s think of a situation in which you have a crush on the cutest guy in the college and one day you decide to talk to him. The first time, you will talk to him no matter what. But, there will be a second time or no depends on how the first encounter goes. The do-while loop works in a similar way. It looks something like this:





while ( condition );

for example:


do {

cout<<“Hello, world!” ;


} while ( x != 0 );

here, “Hello, world!” is printed at least once till x=0 eventhough the condition is false.

So, That’s all folks. Stay tuned for new progamming stuff.Please contact us by email if you have any queries or suggestions.

Charmi Jagwani

Email: captainknowledge1@gmail.com



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And umm… wherever else you can find us.

The ultimate drugs!

Everyone loves drugs , don’t they? Probably not, but at some point in time in everybody’s lives , we do ingest drugs… Why are you making that face?

Okay wait…

So many jokes wasted!

So many jokes wasted!

Let’s make one thing clear.

Drug – a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body.

So , we aren’t going to talk about average stoners today… We are going to talk about the SUPER STONER!….

Wait..no. He’s called the ‘SUPER SOLDIER’.

Didn’t see that coming did ya!


So , Captain America was injected with the ‘Super soldier’ serum and that turned the young sickly skinny boy into A TOTAL HUNK!


Captain America is strong , fast and as tough as his vibranium shield! He is the epitome of fitness!

But this kind of drugs are only available in science fiction , right?

Well , not quite.

Gene therapy , my friends , is the key to this awesomeness! We can add or remove or alter your genes using a drug.. or more appropriately a virus. Except , a virus just screws with the cells to make more of the virus..kind of like.. well humans, and this modified virus does what we want it to do.

It’s not like this is something that came out with the Captain America movie either though , it was first used to cure a immuno-deficiency disorder called ‘Severe combined immuno-deficiency disorder”

It is characterized by the absence of functional T-lymphocytes,which results in a defective antibody response due to either direct involvement with B lymphocytes or through improper B lymphocyte activation due to non-functional T-helper cells.Consequently, both “arms” (B cells and T cells) of the adaptive immune system are impaired due to a defect in one of several possible genes. SCID is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiencies, and there are now at least nine different known genes in which mutations lead to a form of SCID. It is also known as the bubble boy disease.

So , after that happened , geneticists just went ‘LOL lets see what else we can do’

And , pretty amazing things happened .. we even got Genetically modified food!


And well we had glowing cats too… check this out:


So , soon enough we started to wonder , what if we could alter already healthy individuals and make them like Captain America!


So , they were searching for genes that would activate and make us super buff.. Except they discovered that it is not so much what turns the gene on that will make us buff.. it’s what we turn off.

See our body is what it is today because we have genes that limit the production of other genes. These are called Regulators.




So , one of these regulators regress a protein called Myostatin, or as it is also called ‘The muscle protein’. There was a child who is called ‘Das uberboy’ who is said to be born completely ripped, and there wasn’t even any gym in his mother’s womb. Strange? Not with science. However , this guy’s identity is a secret because well..that is what superheroes do… it’s also what super-villains do but let’s have some faith,shall we?

A scientist from John Hopkins university by the name of Se-Jin Lee, made mice super-muscular using this technique.

Then , geneticists also discovered that by repressing the repressor gene called IL-15r-alpha , we could increase the endurance in mice. The could run about 6 times longer than ordinary mice , and some dudes also found the genes that increase bone density, bone formation etc. A scientist even said they had seen humans who had bones that resemble Bruce Willis’ character in unbreakable! However , there identity is a secret one too.

So , truth be told , the super-soldier serum isn’t entirely fiction. We know what to do and how to do it.. why don’t we do it?

Well , the science is still young and to do so in humans is very difficult than doing so in mice… or that’s what they tell us while making super soldiers in secret. We are not here to debate conspiracies though.


Oh , crap.

If you liked what you just read , go like our facebook page to stay updated , also follow us on twitter 🙂 And if you haven’t seen the new Captain America movie… what’s wrong with you?

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– Rishikesh Jani

World of dreams – Part 2

This is a continuation of world of dreams. If you haven’t read that please go to this link.
If you have read it or returned here after reading it , we are now free to move forward in Frued’s theory of psychoanalysis and interpretation of dreams.


You can never fully study something until you learn to classify it . Be it plants , animals , movies , underwear or dreams…. just to be clear , we don’t study underwear so don’t send them to us . Thank you.
So , Freud classified dreams in the following categories.
1) Anxiety Dreams:
One of the most frequent dream themes is that of some form of anxiety.
Anxiety dreams – while less intense than nightmares – often allow us to
Replay, and thus capture, those aspects of our lives which cause us difficulty.
Disturbing elements in our dreams arise from our memories, stray thoughts
Or impressions and our own emotions which we deliberately suppress during
waking hours.
Worries and problems can be allowed to surface with safety in
anxiety dreams. While the images may appear to be the important part of
such a dream, it is actually the emotion experienced which needs to be faced
and recognized. By doing this, we are able to handle ordinary, everyday
anxieties. Dreams associated with grief, particularly surrounding the death
of a partner, are a necessary part of recovery.
Dreaming can allow us deliberately to access and explore our anxieties. If
we cannot meet our feelings of fear or emotional pain we allow ourselves to
be controlled by them. Often by deliberately facing our hidden anxieties,
dreams will give us information on what action needs to be taken to enable
us to avoid making mistakes. Expectations of the future may be revealed
through hidden anxieties.
2) Magical and Spiritual Dreams
Magical dreams and spiritual dreams are also part of the framework of
awareness, though there are those who will deny their existence. Dreams
have often been proved to give information in more esoteric ways i.e. it is only understood by members of only a particular group. Number
and color, and all of the symbolism contained therein, are a valid part of
dream interpretation and, with a little knowledge, can create a structure
which allows access to what would otherwise be hidden information.

Tradition which is based on wisdom, and rituals and ceremonies built around
a knowledge of symbolism, are thus accessed. Personal management of the
creative side of oneself becomes possible both through dreams and the
directed use of power in the waking state, and dreams can act as a monitor
for correct behaviour.

Now stop yawning and skimming through here.. the most interesting part is just up ahead

Just making sure I still have your attention.

1-Un-controlled car:
You are in a car and it stops working, the engine breaks down or you try to push the brake pedal and your car doesn’t stop “JESUS ,TAKE THE WHEEL ” you scream

Also , you probably piss your pants.

One gets these dreams when one feels powerless in his life. Your sub-conscious is telling you that “Dude! You are being forced to do this. You shouldn’t be doing this”
Sit down and figure out what’s wrong. Is your situation indeed so desperate that you are working against your own morals? Are you being forced into something and you don’t know that you are. For e.g. All of your friends persuade you to take a puff of cigar ate cause its cool


2) Broken tech:
You plunge into your sofa grab the TV remote and switch the TV on. But all you can see is static, or you get hold of your phone but it has no network or you try to connect your computer with internet but it never connects (NOTE: THIS DREAM CAN COME EVEN IF YOU HAVE A SLOW INTERNET CONNECTION AT YOUR HOME)
You are getting these dreams because your subconscious wants you to realize that your you losing connection from your dear ones . or you are losing reality. Maybe you are losing touch with your school friends. Maybe you joined a rival company and your former colleagues wouldn’t talk to you anymore (believe me they are so jealous of you)
Get a new phone ,change your internet connection and ditch your cable operator to the those new sattelite things..the ones that offer 200+ channels

That’s how they get you.Trust me.

Just kidding.. ok so what you need to do is sit down… recollect who are the people who are near to your heart but are being missed out. Contact your old friends. Maybe you are planning something that may look a beautiful project but lacks reality, make amends in your projects and thank your brain for making you realize this.

you are handcuffed and trapped in a small cell made of iron bars. You have no place to move. Such dreams end in different ways , and as the name of this site doesn’t read out as xxx videos. It’s pretty obvious which end we shall be choosing.

You are probably getting these because you have a difficult decision to make your subconscious wants you to realize that how important this decision would be. Maybe 2 of your best friends are in a fight and you need to choose a side. Or you don’t know whether to wear the black suit or the navy blue suit for the meeting.
Well there isn’t a lot you can do about those. Only thing I would like to say is if you have reached to such a position where your decision can affect millions you probably have a caliber to take that decision too
(provided you earned that place and didn’t get it as 45th birthday present from your dad)
4) Missing out a train, bus ,flight:
You are wearing suit with these awesome pants with an exquisite suitcase and a classic watch in your hand and you running to catch a train/plane/taxi but you miss it!! Damn!! (clothes and accessories may differ according to the style and tastes of the dreamer. This was my dream)
This is the place where your subconcious kinda behaves like your wife would .. It’s its way of saying “WHY THE HELL DID YOU MISS THAT?” OR “WHY THE HELL WOULD YOU SAY THAT? ” and that sorta thing. Blaming you for something you did in the past.

Take the flying car ofcourse!

Sit down…. And try to figure out which opportunity is your brain talking about .Kick yourself hard for missing it. And resolve that if it were to come back you would grab it with both your hands and give it a bear hug.
5) Failing in a test:

You are alone in a class room .you a question paper and an answer sheet and you can’t figure out a shit. You go on scribbling something in your answer sheet suddenly the bell rings and paper vanishes and you know you are gonna fail and then your mom wakes you up asking you why you wet the bed.
According to Freud ,the reason one gets these dreams is that your subconscious is telling you that you are unprepared for an upcoming important task and it wants to make sure that you start working on it.
Sit down….and try to figure out which task is your subconscious so worried about . chances are you know which task is it talking about cause it’s very important. If you don’t then YOU ARE A JACK ASS.

6) Dying in a dream
You are on a battlefield.. your right hand and left leg are injured then you suddenly realize holy shit there a knife in my chest and blood starts oozing out of your chest. Later you understand that there is blood coming out of your head too. you are wounded at every possible place .and then you die gasping for breath. HOLY SHIT!!
Because you are a useless warrior and you don’t know how to fight OR you are emotionally hurt by someone who is very near to you. Someone very near has managed to betray you.
Sit down…(Sitting down solves most problems ) try to figure who that bitch is. Curse him. When you find out who they are , pick up your phone and call him and try to settle out the matter the gentlemen way. when that doesn’t work challenge them for a thumb fight or whatever you are good at.
7)Being chased:

It’s a chilly winter morning and you are running your guts out. Why? You take look behind and there is someone chasing you with a knife. You go on running your ass out till you wake up all covered in sweat (NOTE:RUNNING IN DREAMS DOESN’T BURN CALORIES).
This dream means your unconscious is telling you that someone is making you uncomfortable. Someone is making you feel out of the place. 99% of the time this chaser has a recognizable face and thus most of the time you know who the person is.
Sit down….. if you know who the person is so pick up your phone call them and try to settle out matters the gentlemen way. if that doesn’t work challenge them for a thumb fight or whatever you are good at.

8) Losing teeth/Growing old
You wake up and you go towards your magic mirror to ask the same old question . but suddenly to realize something odd. Whoa! Your teeth are falling. They crumble like cookies and you lose your hair and cry “MY PRECIOUS!”

Your subconscious is telling you that you are losing your power and authority about something.

Sit down…..try figuring out which meaning does apply to you. What kind of authority are you losing . maybe you are playing bad and that may lead to you losing your captainship or your team mates or colleagues aren’t listening to you. Or maybe you have got some pimples or maybe its time for a facial or a haircut…..and don’t lose the ring of power next time.

9) Naked!

Damn shame.

You are in a public transport or walking down a road or walking in your university campus you realize everyone is watching you and laughing . and then HOLY SHIT!! YOU ARE NAKED! This dream can be a real shocker for women. But they should understand its just a dream. And only they know about it
There are two basic reasons to this dream. 1st which is less likely is you in your subconscious have fetish for this kind of environment. This thing turns you on. OR the 2nd which is more likely is you are embarrassed in public due to some reasons . maybe there is something that has fetched you shame publicly.
Look , you’ve had this dream , I’ve had this dream and probably everyone on this godforsaken planet has had this dream , so sit down… calm yourself down.. face the fact that you are going to face embarresment when you have done something wrong, build your mind up that you need to face the situation any day OR you can just trap yourself in your house for your whole life.

10)Falling down, sinking:

You are standing on the top of Burj Dubai or the Eiffel tower or perhaps in the hands of Di Caprio on the Titanic.Everything is perfect …and someone gives you a nudge OOPS! You start falling down the adrenaline and fear takes you and when you are about to smash you body into the asphalt you wake up wetting your pants
This dream represents that your subconscious thinks that you are experiencing acute lack of support, people aren’t supporting you with your awesome, mind blowing ideas. (HAPPENS WITH ME ALL THE TIMES)
Figure out which project or thing is the dream aimed at. If you are a high authority in some company And now your ideas are being rejected. Know that your time is up. People want change.
I have tried my level best to explain you dreams in simple words. Always remember dreams are often subjective. Each dream would have something that relates you or connects you to the dream. Even though after reading this you do have some dream which you want an explanation to please write it down in comments. If its too embarrassing you can message me at captainknowledge1@gmail.com

– Rushaabh Saliya

The roots of the terror : Organic Chemistry

This one is especially for the ones who have heard a lot ill about organic chemistry and for those who know nothing about organic chemistry but wish to do .

Trust me .Curiosity will not kill you

You will or might even have surely come across people telling you “organic is difficult ,its so freaking vast” . Even my professor once said “ If you have good memory, then organic chem will be a piece of cake for you. “

Guess what….. that’s not the case , and as I quote “Organic Chemistry is pretty easy and beautiful”.

You don’t need to take memory pills, that much I can assure you.

How do people who take memory pills remember to take memory pills?

To ensure excellence in organic chemistry one must have a crystal clear understanding of the basics (of course ,just like any other subject) .

But here the basics are easy,they never leave you throughout the topic.

We do not mean it this way.

The beauty of organic chemistry is that every answer is hidden in the basics. For those who suck at basics, memorise stuff. (not recommended,duh).

Trust me , I'm smart....well at least smarter than a duck

Trust me , I’m smart….well at least smarter than a duck

FIRST thing first. (Also the one which might have sprung up in some minds after reading the title).

Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which deals with carbon compounds and their properties.

Just carbon? You ask?.

Yes ,just him. So study of one element carbon is much more vast then the study of the rest taken together (Inorganic Chemistry) ?

Why so?
It is because carbon was blessed by the Almighty with a miraculous property of bonding. Catenation.
Catenation in simple words is just the ability to join hands with other fellow carbons very easily.

See? Chemistry is cute.

Due to which they form long long chains of carbons. Carbon also bonds with other elements easily because it has 4 electrons with him. So he can give away the 4 or take more 4. Enabling him to bond more strongly and with vivid members, It is because this we have to study this guy ‘carbon’ separately , and naming the study as

So what have we learned?

Carbon likes to bond with himself and other people.Giving us a gigantic number of compounds to study .

Good so we are learning stuff.!
Studying these compounds needs sorting first, so how do we go about it. We look for functional groups. So now what’s this thing?
Functional group is a particular part of any carbon compound which behaves in a particular and same way irrespective of the rest of the compound. That is to say , If Brad holds hands with Angelina , we call the pair Brangelina.

And if you know a functional group reacts in one molecule you can predict how it will react in almost all other molecules. !


Every carbon compound consist of some or the other functional group. Less the number of functional group , simpler the compond is to study.
What are the different functional groups?
Alkanes ( Holding one hand)
Alkenes (Holding two hands )
Alkynes ( Holding three hands……….just….okay? )
Haloalkane (-Cl, -F, -Br i.e Carbon holding hands with Halogen)
Alcohol ( -OH i.e carbon holding hands with hydroxyl )
Amine (-NH2 i.e carbon with nitrogen and hydrogen)
Aldehyde ( R-CHO )
Ketone (R-CO-R’ )
Carboxylic acids (R-COOH)
These are the most common functional groups. We may discuss them in detail further.
As far as Alkanes ,Alkenes and Alkynes are concerned they all are brothers to one another, All coming under the roof of HYDROCARBONS ( compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen)

Alkane , the youngest of ‘em all.

The hydrocarbon chains containing only single bonds belong to alkanes

(Just so you know if you cut a single hydrogen from alkane it becomes ‘alkyl’ also widely denoted as “R”)
Alkenes, Middle man.

The hydrocarbons containing double bonds.
Alkyne, The eldest.

As you can guess the hydrocarbon having triple bonds.
Haloalkane: As the name suggest… Alkane with a halogen.

Untitled-1If you were able to crack this there’s nothing more to understand what haloalkanes are. Yes , they are carbon compounds where one carbon is bonded to a halogen (ie Chlorine, Flourine, Bromine,Iodine)

Alcohol: Oh my favorite!

And I’m not even talking about these

When we take one hydrogen away from a carbon in a compound and give it a hydroxyl ,we get alcohol (yay).

Alcohols are pretty simple, a carbon attached to an oxygen which is further attached to a Hydrogen [-C-O-H].

They are used as solvnets throughout chemistry.

Common examples of alcohols are methyl alcohol(wood spirit), ethyl alcohol (the one you were thinking of).

The best thing about alcohols according to me is that they undergo oxidation. Why?

Alcohols readily oxidise to Aldehydes (will learn later) which then undergo Oxidation to get to Acids ( will learn little more later)

Aldehydes and Ketones :

They are brothers from a different mothers. In simple words, Aldehydes have an alkyl one one end and hydrogen on the other and oxygen in the middle.

Whereas ketones have two alkyl groups on both ends and oxygen in the middle.
Acids : The structure of an acid can be easily understood this way,

Take an aldehyde(R-CHO),

replace the hydrogen on the (C-O) side with a hydroxyl .

Voila!!! You have an Acid (R-COOH).

Just so you know , we aren’t talking about the drug.

These are bad-asses of the organic chemistry. From proteins in your body,to the butter in your fridge, all consists of some sort of carboxylic acid.

Its high reactivity earns him top priority amongst other functional groups.


Organic chemistry is much easier if you develop new techniques for yourself,

Since myself being a huge pokemon fan , this ones mine, I see Alcohols as Charmander (My favorite pokemon btw) , that makes Aldehydes as Charmeleon and finally the apex state alcohols can transform to , Charizard i.e Acids.

Oxidation here is the process of evolution. Pokemons in chemistry devolve too, That is called as Reduction which means Charizard on reduction becomes Charmeleon and so on to Charmander. Acids becomes Aldehydes which become Alcohols.
Sounds stupid? Well, I wanted it to be. More stupid ways you think of easier it becomes for you to remember. So whenever you want to remember something, remember it in a stupid way.

If you wish to learn in detail , check out the course Yale has made available for free here:


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– Ajinkya Gawali

Einstein for noobs : Special theory of relativity. Part 1

The reason for writing this article comes from a quote of Einstein. Einstein , the person who is regarded as one of the smartest people to have ever lived , had said ” If you cannot explain it simply , you don’t understand it well enough”. So here I am , trying to see if I do understand , while helping the general crowd to realise the impact this guy had on physics.

However , before we start , I am going to assume you know a few things.. the first being high school mathematics , and the second being that you know that light is the fastest thing in the universe and that nothing can travel faster than light.

And one more thing… The special theory of relativity applies only to an ‘Inertial reference frame’ .

What that means , is that it applies only to things that are NOT accelerating . They are either ‘stationary’ or moving with a constant velocity. Also , it does not apply to things moving in a circular path or a curve. The reason for this is that if you move in a curve , you have something called a centripetal acceleration. Which means you are accelerating ‘inwards’.

Also if you consider yourself to be in a car , lets call the car S ( Get excited , you can choose to be in a Bugatti Veyron if you want)

and there is a car in front of you , lets call that car S’ . Now , all you can tell is that S’ is moving away from you at a velocity v.  But that the same time , a person in S’ could say that you are moving away from it with a velocity v.. Or maybe you both are moving away from each other with a ‘combined’ velocity v …There is nothing you can do to tell the difference.

Imagine the car you are in to be at rest for the moment and S’ is a little bit behind you in the next lane .. now your car , that is S , has a wire coming out at the side  and S’ has the same. When S’ reaches you , a current is passed and the clocks on both of the cars are ‘synchronized’ or lets say the both hit 12′ o clock. And this is t= 0 . What you might think here is that both the clocks will forever be synchronized. Well , just wait and watch.

Now , after the clocks were synchronized , S’ moved some distance away from you . Now imagine a flash of light occurs and you in S and the other guy in S’ see it. 

Now , you say that the light flashed at a distance of ‘x’ from you when the time was ‘t’

And S’ says that the light flashed at a distance ‘ x’ ‘ from it and the time measured ‘ t’ ‘

Now , you can say easily that x = x’ + vt’ ( for you , S’ is moving at the velocity v and t’ is the time S’ recorded when the light flash occurred  )


x’ = x – vt

This seems pretty decent until now…

Let us now look to an experiment conducted my Michelson and Morley …. well , lets look at an analogy that is easier to understand.

Consider yourself to be running on the top of the train because you are a cool , badass individual.


Lets say , for the sake of understanding that you run at 20 m/s . and the train runs at 50 m/s .

The dude on the platform , while still in awe at what you’re doing will tell you that he sees you move at

50+20 = 70 m/s.

which is quite obvious , actually.

If you run in the direction opposite to that of train , the guy on the platform will say he sees you move at

50 – 20 = 30 m/s.

Now , lets say Michelson and Morley weren’t as badass as you , so instead they took a flash light ( speed ‘c’ or about 3 x 10 ^8 )and shone it in the direction of the train and asked the dude on the platform at what speed was the light appearing to travel at?

To the surprise of the whole world , he said it it was ‘c’.

That’s basically how physicists reacted.

They expected him to say that it would be c + 50 m/s . Which would be the obvious answer.

It turns out that in whatever way you measure the speed of light , the answer is always ‘c’ .

This was completely mind boggling and counter intuitive.. One might even say they had some erroneous clocks of a scale (or ruler .. whatever you call it ).

However , the fact that the speed of light was always measured to be ‘c’ was the conclusion of the Michelson and Morley’s experiment.

Now , lets to back a little , remember when the clocks in S and S’ were synchronized when the wires protruding from both cars touched? Lets say that when the wires touched , a signal went from your car ,S, to a point far down the road and it caused the light , which both of you saw , to appear.

When the light does , in fact appear , S’ has moved a little down the road .

Now , you , in the ‘S’ car will say that the light appeared at a distance ‘x’ , when time was ‘t’ and therefore ,

c= x/t

and the S’ guy will say that the light appeared at a distance x’ when the time was t’ and therefore ,

c= x’/t’

about here is when your mind should explode, because since x and x’ aren’t equal , t and t’ cannot be equal because , we know from Michelson and Morley , that both the observers , you in the car S and the other guy in car S’ , will measure the same speed for light , c.

Now you say that there must be an error made  by S’ while measuring either distance and/or time . So you say that

x’ = ( x-vt)z

where z is the error in measurement.

But , at the same time , S’ says that

x= (x’ + vt’ )z

We use the same z because you both call each other wrong , but you cannot say that the other is more wrong or less wrong than you are , obviously.

Simple mathematics will let you find the error ‘z’ .

All you have to do is multiply the equations , resulting in

xx’ = z^2 (x’ +vt’ )(x – vt)

which becomes

xx’ = z^2 ( x’x + vt’x – x’vt – v^2 t’t )

now , wherever you see t or t’, substitute

t = x/c


t’ = x’/c

and then you get

xx’ = z^2 ( xx’ + v(x’/c)x  – x’ v (x/c) – v^2 (x/c)(x’/c)  )

Now , you can divide all of that by xx’

1 = z^2 ( 1 + v/c – v/c – v^2/c^2 )


z= 1/ [sqrt ( 1- v^2/c^2 ) ]

and that is called the Lorentz factor.

You can now work out the values of x and x’ using the previous equations and substituting the value of z

Now , while studying classical mechanics , we ignore the lorentz factor because if v is really small , the value of z is very very near to 1. So , z is only relevant if v is really high, generally nearing the speed of light, c.

You can also , work this relation for time, you will get

t’ =[ t – (v/c^2) x ]z      and    t = [t’ +(v/c^2)x’ ]z

Now , to summarize , when speeds are relativistic , i.e when the ‘z’ becomes large enough (relatively) , the distance measured by you and the time measured by you will depend on the speed between you , in the car S and the guy in the car S’

In other words , the clocks moving away from you move slower , and the distances appear shorter.

We will take this a little further in part 2, We will try to understand what ‘Time dilation , length contraction , simultaneity and other mumbo jumbo means  and we will also see what E = mc^2 means. So stay tuned 🙂

In the meantime , you might want to check out lectures by Professor Leonard Susskind on Stanford university’s youtube channel . They are amazing, and you will learn a lot .

– Rishikesh Jani